this concludes phase 2
So, this post concludes phase 2 of my write-up. Phase 1 was largely about (trying) to explain the basics, and concentrating largely on literal operators (recall, defined using OP KET => SUPERPOSITION). Phase 2 was largely about describing and giving some example usages of function operators. Also, I hope, along the way I demonstrated some of the power of the whole BKO scheme.
Where the "BKO scheme" is the idea that you can get a long way just with the idea that everything is a ket, a superposition, or an operator that acts on kets and/or superpositions, and returns kets or superpositions. (and maybe eventually I will include sequences in this scheme. The idea being that superpositions are a space based collection of kets, and sequences are a time based collection of kets. With more thought, another way to look at it is for superpositions the order of the kets is irrelevant, ie kets commute, with sequences the order of the kets is important.)
One consequence of this unified model is you no longer need a new class for each type of object you are working with (the standard Object-Orientated model). Instead we use category/data-type labels to represent that. So instead of needing to define say a person class, we use:
op |person: *> #=> ...
for an operator that works for all members of type person. And:
op |plant: tree: *> #=> ...
for an operator that works for all types of trees.
op |plant: tree: elm> #=> ...
for an operator that works just for trees of type elm.
op |*> #=> ...
for an operator that works for all types (though usually this just means we have been too lazy to specify the data-type!).
Indeed, if we look at the code, we have, and need, only a handful of classes. One for kets, superpositions, stored-rules, context, and context-list. That's it!
Talking of code, at some stage I will link to it. The long term plan is for this to be open source, and for others to bang on it. Of course, currently the code quality is terrible (but mostly works). When I started I was a programming newb, and did terrible things! For the shorter term plan I would love if I could get others on-board to map more data to sw format. And the other side of that, get more people (ie, someone other than me!) to use the sw format.
So world, welcome to the Feynman Knowledge Engine, a minimalist, but working, knowledge engine. And in the back end a custom data representation format (the sw format), and a language to work with it. Feynman being one of my physics hero's!
I have some interesting stuff coming up in phase 3, so as always, heaps more to come!
Update: OK. So I'm not going to link to the code just yet, but I will link to the console history file. The console saves a record of all work done at the console. This is useful in that you can look back and see how you did something, but also useful so others can see how I make use of the BKO scheme.
Update: So, I've been re-reading the Sci Am semantic web paper. In particular, this interested me:
real power of the Semantic Web will be realized when people create many
programs that collect Web content from diverse sources, process the
information and exchange the results with other programs.
A typical process will involve the creation of a "value chain" in which
subassemblies of information are passed from one agent to another, each
one "adding value," to construct the final product requested by the end
Strikes me we could do that with not too much work by using the sw format as the method to transfer information from agent to agent. Also strikes me that this will go some way to making the web/internet into a giant brain. Though that is still some way off!
Heh, I have a mental picture of the BKO scheme operators mapping incoming superpositions to out-going superpositions. And agents a level higher than that, mapping incoming sw files to out-going sw files. Interesting!
I guess the next question is what language will these agents be written in? It is kinda clunky to use my back-end python. I've been thinking of a new language called "swc" (ie, semantic-web-code). Not sure exactly what form it will take just yet, but the idea is sw is a subset, so all valid sw is valid in swc, but in contrast to sw it will also have multi-line constructs like loops and functions, and other features like input and output and so on. But I don't really have a mental image of what this full language will look like, yet.
Update: another comment on the power of the BKO scheme.
Say we have n different operators, and we step k steps from our starting superposition, then, there are n^k possible daughter superpositions! Now, not all of these will be useful, or distinct, but as a rough measure n^k is large! The more general, and powerful your operators, the more useful daughter superpositions you will have available to you! Cool!
And if we add 1 new general purpose operator, we now have (n+1)^k - n^k new daughter superpositions.
Indeed, if we have M starting superpositions, n operators, and we take a max of k steps, then the upper bound on the number of distinct and useful superpositions we have is:
M*(1 + n + n^2 + n^3 + ... + n^k-1 + n^k)
Update: we can consider operators to be analogous to tools. Say we are in state:
|hungry> + |have closed can of food>
OK. Not much we can do about solving that.
But if we learn about a "can-opener" (ie, a tool) and an "eat" operator:
sa: can-opener |have closed can of food> => |have open can of food>
sa: eat |have open can of food> => |not hungry> + |have empty can of food>
And now we can do:
sa: eat can-opener (|hungry> + |have closed can of food>)
|not hungry> + |have empty can of food>
Cool huh! And to me indicates BKO is the right notation/language to use!
Update: here is an interesting little observation. If some of your operators commute, ie "op1 op2 SP" = "op2 op1 SP" then we have less distinct daughter superpositions.
previous: brief note on pretty print tables
next: announcing phase 3 similar and find topic operators
by Garry Morrison
email: garry -at- semantic-db.org